As an in vitro model for type II human lung cancer, A549 cells resist cytotoxicity via phosphorylation of proteins as demonstrated by many studies. However, to date, no large-scale phosphoproteome investigation has been conducted on A549. Here, we performed a systematical analysis of the phosphoproteome of A549 by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies. This investigation led to the identification of 337 phosphorylation sites on 181 phosphoproteins. Among them, 67 phosphoproteins and 230 phosphorylation sites identified appeared to be novel with no previous characterization in lung cancer. Based on their known functions as reported in the literature, these phosphoproteins were functionally organized into highly interconnected networks. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to validate the expression of a bottleneck phosphoprotein YAP1 in cancer cell lines and tissues. This dataset provides a valuable resource for further studies on phosphorylation and lung carcinogenesis.